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Q2, 2024


Dirk Nettelbeck

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Dirk Nettelbeck

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Date of the online publication

1 July 2024


Cancer therapeutics approved for clinical application include oncolytic viruses and antibodies, which evolved by nature, but were improved by molecular engineering. Both facilitate outstanding tumor selectivity and pleiotropic activities, but also face challenges, such as tumor heterogeneity and limited tumor penetration. An innovative strategy to address these challenges combines both agents in a single, multitasking therapeutic, i.e., an oncolytic virus engineered to express therapeutic antibodies. Such viro-antibody therapies genetically deliver antibodies to tumors from amplified virus genomes, thereby complementing viral oncolysis with antibody-defined therapeutic action. Here, we review the strategies of viro-antibody therapy that have been pursued exploiting diverse virus platforms, antibody formats, and antibody-mediated modes of action. We provide a comprehensive overview of reported antibody-encoding oncolytic viruses and highlight the achievements of 13 years of viro-antibody research.

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